The International Language
Here is a general outline of Esperanto grammar. The grammatical rules have
- Nouns end in -o
- Adjectives end in -a
- Plurals are formed by adding -j
- The accusative case is formed by adding -n
- Adverbs end in -e
- Nouns have two cases: nominative and accusative.
- Adjectives agree with their nouns in case and number.
- All prepositions govern the nominative case.
- Verb endings are shown here.
- Verbs are conjugated by tense only. (Forms do not change with person or number.)
- Participle endings are shown here.
- Compound verb and participle forms are shown here.
- Accent is always on the next-to-last syllable.
- Spelling is phonetic: words are spelled as pronounced and pronounced as spelled.
- The definite article is la (not declined). There is no indefinite article.
- The final -o in nouns may be replaced with an apostrophe, if desired
(usually done only in poetry). Similarly, the definite article la may be
replaced with l'.
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Page last updated: January 20, 2007.