The International Language

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David Simpson


Here is a general outline of Esperanto grammar. The grammatical rules have no exceptions.
  • Nouns end in -o
  • Adjectives end in -a
  • Plurals are formed by adding -j
  • The accusative case is formed by adding -n
  • Adverbs end in -e
  • Nouns have two cases: nominative and accusative.
  • Adjectives agree with their nouns in case and number.
  • All prepositions govern the nominative case.
  • Verb endings are shown here.
  • Verbs are conjugated by tense only. (Forms do not change with person or number.)
  • Participle endings are shown here.
  • Compound verb and participle forms are shown here.
  • Accent is always on the next-to-last syllable.
  • Spelling is phonetic: words are spelled as pronounced and pronounced as spelled.
  • The definite article is la (not declined). There is no indefinite article.
  • The final -o in nouns may be replaced with an apostrophe, if desired (usually done only in poetry). Similarly, the definite article la may be replaced with l'.

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Page last updated: January 20, 2007.